ARTICLE X
Local Government
General Provisions
Section 1. The territorial and political subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines are the provinces, cities,
municipalities, and barangays. There shall be autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras as
hereinafter provided.
Section 2. The territorial and political subdivisions shall enjoy local autonomy.
Section 3. The Congress shall enact a local government code which shall provide for a more responsive and
accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization with effective
mechanisms of recall, initiative, and referendum, allocate among the different local government units their
powers, responsibilities, and resources, and provide for the qualifications, election, appointment and removal,
term, salaries, powers and functions and duties of local officials, and all other matters relating to the organization
and operation of the local units.
Section 4. The President of the Philippines shall exercise general supervision over local governments.
Provinces with respect to component cities an municipalities, and cities and municipalities with respect to
component barangays shall ensure that the acts of their component units are within the scope of their prescribed
powers and functions.
Section 5. Each local government unit shall have the power to create its own sources of revenues and to levy
taxes, fees and charges subject to such guidelines and limitations as the Congress may provide, consistent with
the basic policy of local autonomy. Such taxes, fees, and charges shall accrue exclusively to the local
governments.
Section 6. Local government units shall have a just share, as determined by law, in the national taxes which
shall be automatically released to them.
Section 7. Local governments shall be entitled to an equitable share in the proceeds of the utilization and
development of the national wealth within their respective areas, in the manner provided by law, including
sharing the same with the inhabitants by way of direct benefits.
Section 8. The term of office of elective local officials, except barangay officials, which shall be determined by
law, shall be three years and no such official serve for more than three consecutive terms. Voluntary
renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his
service for the full term for which he was elected.
Section 9. Legislative bodies of local governments shall have sectoral representation as may be prescribed by
law.
Section 10. No province, city, municipality, or barangay may be created, divided, merged, abolished, or its
boundary substantially altered, except in accordance with the criteria established in the local government code
and subject to approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the political units directly affected.
Section 11. The Congress may, by law, create special metropolitan political subdivisions, subject to a plebiscite
as set forth in Section 10 hereof. The component cities and municipalities shall retain their basic autonomy and
shall be entitled to their own local executives and legislative assemblies. The jurisdiction of the metropolitan
authority that will thereby be created shall be limited to basic services requiring coordination.
Section 12. Cities that are highly urbanized, as determined by law, and component cities whose charters
prohibit their voters from voting for provincial elective officials, shall be independent of the province. The voters
of component cities within a province, whose charters contain no such prohibition, shall not be deprived of their
right to vote for elective provincial officials.
Section 13. Local government units may group themselves, consolidate or coordinate their efforts, services, and
resources for purposes commonly beneficial to them in accordance with law.
Section 14. The President shall provide for regional development councils or other similar bodies composed of
local government officials, regional heads of departments and other government offices, and representatives
from non-governmental organizations within the regions for purposes of administrative decentralization to
strengthen the autonomy of the units therein and to accelerate the economic and social growth and development
of the units in the region.
Autonomous Regions
Section 15. There shall be created autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and in the Cordilleras consisting of
provinces, cities, municipalities, and geographical areas sharing common and distinctive historical and cultural
heritage, economic and social structures, and other relevant characteristics within the framework of this
Constitution and the national sovereignty as well as territorial integrity of the Republic of the Philippines.
Section 16. The President shall exercise general supervision over autonomous regions to ensure that laws are
faithfully executed.
Section 17. All powers, functions, and responsibilities not granted by this Constitution or by law to the
autonomous regions shall be vested in the National Government.
Section 18. The Congress shall enact an organic act for each autonomous region with the assistance and
participation of the regional consultative commission composed of representatives appointed by the President
from a list of nominees from multisectoral bodies. The organic act shall define the basic structure of government
for the region consisting of the executive department and legislative assembly, both of which shall be elective
and representative of the constituent political units. The organic acts shall likewise provide for special courts with
personal, family, and property law jurisdiction consistent with the provisions of this Constitution and national
laws.
The creation of the autonomous region shall be effective when approved by majority of the votes cast by the
constituent units in a plebiscite called for the purpose, provided that only provinces, cities, and geographic areas
voting favorably in such plebiscite shall be included in the autonomous region.
Section 19. The first Congress elected under this Constitution shall, within eighteen months from the time of
organization of both Houses, pass the organic acts for the autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the
Cordilleras.
Section 20. Within its territorial jurisdiction and subject to the provisions of this Constitution and national laws,
the organic act of autonomous regions shall provide for legislative powers over:
(1) Administrative organization; (2) Creation of sources of revenues; (3) Ancestral domain and natural resources;
(4) Personal, family, and property relations; (5) Regional urban and rural planning development; (6) Economic,
social, and tourism development; (7) Educational policies; (8) Preservation and development of the cultural
heritage; and (9) Such other matters as may be authorized by law for the promotion of the general welfare of the
people of the region.
Section 21. The preservation of ponstitution, treason, bribery, graft and corruption, other high crimes, or betrayal
of public trust. All other public officers and employees may be removed from office as provided by law, but not by
impeachment.
Section 3. (1) The House of Representatives shall have the exclusive power to initiate all cases of
impeachment.
(2) A verified complaint for impeachment may be filed by any Member of the House of Representatives or by any
citizen upon a resolution of endorsement by any Member thereof, which shall be included in the Order of
Business within ten session days, and referred to the proper Committee within three session days thereafter.
The Committee, after hearing, and by a majority vote of all its Members, shall submit its report to the House
within sixty session days from such referral, together with the corresponding resolution. The resolution shall be
calendared for consideration by the House within ten session days from receipt thereof.
(3) A vote of at least one-third of all the Members of the House shall be necessary either to affirm a favorable
resolution with the Articles of Impeachment of the Committee, or override its contrary resolution. The vote of
each Member shall be recorded.
(4) In case the verified complaint or resolution of impeachment is filed by at least one-third of all the Members of
the House, the same shall constitute the Articles of Impeachment, and trial by the Senate shall forthwith
proceed.