(5) No impeachment proceedings shall be initiated against the same official more than once within a period of
one year.
(6) The Senate shall have the sole power to try and decide all cases of impeachment. When sitting for that
purpose, the Senators shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the Philippines is on trial, the Chief
Justice of the Supreme Court shall preside, but shall not vote. No person shall be convicted without the
concurrence of two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate.
(7) Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than removal from office and disqualification to
hold any office under the Republic of the Philippines, but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and
subject to prosecution, trial and punishment according to law.
(8) The Congress shall promulgate its rules on impeachment to effectively carry out the purpose of this section.
Section 4. The present anti-graft court known as the Sandigan-bayan shall continue to function and exercise its
jurisdiction as now or hereafter may be provided by law.
Section 5. There is hereby created the independent Office of the Ombudsman, composed of the Ombudsman to
be known as Tanod-bayan, one overall Deputy and at least one Deputy each for Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.
A separate Deputy for the military establishment may likewise be appointed.
Section 6. The officials and employees of the Office of the Ombudsman, other than the Deputies, shall be
appointed by the Ombudsman according to the Civil Service Law.
Section 7. The existing Tanodbayan shall hereafter be known as the Office of the Special Prosecutor. It shall
continue to function exercise its powers as now or hereafter may be provided by law, except those conferred on
the Office of the Ombudsman created under this Constitution.
Section 8. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, and at the time of
their appointment, at least forty years old, or recognized probity and independence, and members of the
Philippine Bar, and must not have been candidates for any elective office in the immediately preceding election.
The Ombudsman must have for ten years or more been a judge or engaged in the practice of law in the
Philippines.
During their tenure, they shall be subject to the same disqualifications and prohibitions as provided for in Section
2 of Article 1X-A of this Constitution.
Section 9. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall be appointed by the President from a list of at least six
nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council, and from a list of three nominees for every vacancy
thereafter. Such appointments shall require no confirmation. All vacancies shall be filled within three months
after they occur.
Section 10. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall have the rank of Chairman and Members, respectively, of
the Constitutional Commissions, and they shall receive the same salary, which shall not be decreased during
their term of office.
Section 11. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall serve for a term of seven years without reappointment.
They shall not be qualified to run for any office in the election immediately succeeding their cessation from office.
Section 12. The Ombudsman and his Deputies, as protectors of the people, shall act promptly on complaints
filed in any form or manner against public officials or employees of the Government, or any subdivision, agency
or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations, and shall, in appropriate
cases, notify the complainants of the action taken and the result thereof.
Section 13. The Office of the Ombudsman shall have the following powers, functions, and duties:
(1) Investigate on its own, or on complaint by any person, any act or omission of any public official, employee,
office or agency, when such act or omission appears to be illegal, unjust, improper, or inefficient.
(2) Direct, upon complaint or at its own instance, any public official or employee of the Government, or any
subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, as well as of any government-owned or controlled corporation
with original charter, to perform and expedite any act or duty required by law, or to stop, prevent, and correct any
abuse or impropriety in the performance of duties.
(3) Direct the officer concerned to take appropriate action against a public official or employee at fault, and
recommend his removal, suspension, demotion, fine, censure, or prosecution, and ensure compliance therewith.
(4) Direct the officer concerned, in any appropriate case, and subject to such limitations as may be provided by
law, to furnish it with copies of documents relating to contracts or transactions entered into by his office involving
the disbursement or use of public funds or properties, and report any irregularity to the Commission on Audit for
appropriate action.
(5) Request any government agency for assistance and information necessary in the discharge of its
responsibilities, and to examine, if necessary, pertinent records and documents.
(6) Publicize matters covered by its investigation when circumstances so warrant and with due prudence.
(7) Determine the causes of inefficiency, red tape, mismanagement, fraud, and corruption in the Government
and make recommendations for their elimination and the observance of high standards of ethics and efficiency.
(8) Promulgate its rules of procedure and exercise such other powers or perform such functions or duties as may
be provided by law.
Section 14. The Office of the Ombudsman shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Its approved annual appropriations shall
be automatically and regularly released.
Section 15. The right of the State to recover properties unlawfully acquired by public officials or employees, from
them or from their nominees or transferees, shall not be barred by prescription, laches, or estoppel.
Section 16. No loan, guaranty, or other form of financial accommodation for any business purpose may be
granted, directly or indirectly, by any government-owned or controlled bank or financial institution to the
President, the Vice-President, the Members of the Cabinet, the Congress, the Supreme Court, and the
Constitutional Commissions, the Ombudsman, or to any firm or entity in which they have controlling interest,
during their tenure.
Section 17. A public officer or employee shall, upon assumption of office and as often thereafter as may be
required by law, submit a declaration under oath of his assets, liabilities, and net worth. In the case of the
President, the Vice-President, the Members of the Cabinet, the Congress, the Supreme Court, the Constitutional
Commissions and other constitutional offices, and officers of the armed forces with general or flag rank, the
declaration shall be disclosed to the public in the manner provided by law.
Section 18. Public officers and employees owe the State and this Constitution allegiance at all times, and any
public officer or employee who seeks to change his citizenship or acquire the status of an immigrant of another
country during his tenure shall be dealth with by law.

ARTICLE XII
National Economy and Patrimony
Section 1. The goals of the national economy are a more equitable distribution of opportunities, income, and
wealth; a sustained increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the nation for the benefit of the
people; and an expanding productivity as the key to raising the quality of life for all, especially the
underprivileged.
The State shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural development and
agrarian reform, through industries that make full and efficient use of human and natural resources, and which
are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. However, the State shall protect Filipino enterprises
against unfair foreign competition and trade practices.
In the pursuit of these goals, all sectors of the economy and all regions of the country shall be given optimum
opportunity to develop. Private enterprises, including corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective
organizations, shall be encouraged to broaden the base of their ownership.
Section 2. All lands of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all forces of
potential energy, fisheries, forests or timber, wildlife, flora and fauna, and other natural resources are owned by
the State. With the exception of agricultural lands, all other natural resources shall not be alienated. The
exploration, development, and utilization of natural resources shall be under the full control and supervision of
the State. The State may directly undertake such activities, or it may enter into co-production, joint venture, or