Social Justice and Human Rights
Section 1. The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect and enhance the
right of all the people to human dignity, reduce social, economic, and political inequalities, and remove cultural
inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power for the common good.
To this end, the State shall regulate the acquisition, ownership, use, and disposition of property and its
Section 2. The promotion of social justice shall include the commitment to create economic opportunities based
on freedom of initiative and self-reliance.
Section 3. The State shall afford full protection to labor, local and overseas, organized and unorganized, and
promote full employment and equality of employment opportunities for all.
It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self-organization, collective bargaining and negotiations,and
peaceful concerted activities, including the right to strike in accordance with law. They shall be entitled to
security of tenure, humane conditions of work, and a living wage. They shall also participate in policy and
decision-making processes affecting their rights and benefits as may be provided by law.
The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workers and employers and the
preferential use of voluntary modes in settling disputes, including conciliation, and shall enforce their mutual
compliance therewith to foster industrial peace.
The State shall regulate the relations between workers and employers, recognizing the right of labor to its just
share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprises to reasonable returns to investments, and to
expansion and growth.
Agrarian and Natural Resources Reform
Section 4. The State shall, by law, undertaken an agrarian reform program founded on the right of farmers and
regular farmworkers, who are landless, to own directly or collectively the lands they till or in the case of other
farmworkers, to receive a just share of the fruits thereof. To this end, the State shall encourage and undertake
the just distribution of all agricultural lands, subject to such priorities and reasonable retention limits as the
Congress may prescribe, taking into account ecological, developmental, or equity considerations, and subject to
the payment of just compensation. In determining retention limits, the State shall respect the right of small
landowners. The State shall further provide incentives for voluntary land-sharing.
Section 5. The State shall recognize the right of farmers, farmworkers, and landowners, as well as cooperatives,
and other independent farmers’ organizations to participate in the planning, organization, and management of
the program, and shall provide support to agriculture through appropriate technology and research, and
adequate financial, production, marketing, and other support services.
Section 6. The State shall apply the principles of agrarian reform or stewardship, whenever applicable in
accordance with law, in the disposition or utilization of other natural resources, including lands of the public
domain under lease or concession suitable to agriculture, subject to prior rights, homestead rights of small
settlers, and the rights of indigenous communities to their ancestral lands.
The State may resettle landless farmers and farmworkers in its own agricultural estates which shall be
distributed to them in the manner provided by law.
Section 7. The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen, especially of local communities, to the
preferential use of the communal marine and fishing resources, both inland and offshore. It shall provide support
to such fishermen through appropriate technology and research, adequate financial, production, and marketing
assistance, and other services. The State shall also protect, develop, and conserve such resources. The
protection shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion.
Fishworkers shall receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources.
Section 8. The State shall provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds of the agrarian reform
program to promote industrialization, employment creation, and privatization of public sector enterprises.
Financial instruments used as payment for their lands shall be honored as equity in enterprises of their choice.
Urban Land Reform and Housing
Section 9. The State shall, by law, and for the common good, undertake, in cooperation with the private sector,
a continuing program of urban land reform and housing which will make available at affordable cost decent
housing and basic services to underprivileged and homeless citizens in urban centers and resettlement areas. It
shall also promote adequate employment opportunities to such citizens. In the implementation of such program
the State shall respect the rights of small property owners.
Section 10. Urban or rural poor dwellers shall not be evicted nor their dwelling demolished, except in
accordance with law and in a just and humane manner.
No resettlement of urban or rural dwellers shall be undertaken without adequate consultation with them and the
communities where they are to be relocated.
Section 11. The State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development which
shall endeavor to make essential goods, health and other social services available to all the people at affordable
cost. There shall be priority for the needs of the under-privileged sick, elderly, disabled, women, and children.
The State shall endeavor to provide free medical care to paupers.
Section 12. The State shall establish and maintain an effective food and drug regulatory system and undertake
appropriate health manpower development and research, responsive to the country’s health needs and
Section 13. The State shall establish a special agency for disabled person for their rehabilitation, self-
development and self-reliance, and their integration into the mainstream of society.
Section 14. The State shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working conditions, taking
into account their maternal functions, and such facilities and opportunities that will enhance their welfare and
enable them to realize their full potential in the service of the nation.
Role and Rights of People’s Organization
Section 15. The State shall respect the role of independent people’s organizations to enable the people to
pursue and protect, within the democratic framework, their legitimate and collective interests and aspirations
through peaceful and lawful means.
People’s organizations are bona fide associations of citizens with demonstrated capacity to promote the public
interest and with identifiable leadership, membership, and structure.
Section 16. The right of the people and their organizations to effective and reasonable participation at all levels
of social, political, and economic decision-making shall not be abridged. The State shall, by law, facilitate the
establishment of adequate consultation mechanisms.