Human Rights
Section 17. (1) There is hereby created an independent office called the Commission on Human Rights.
(2) The Commission shall be composed of a Chairman and four Members who must be natural-born citizens of
the Philippines and a majority of whom shall be members of the Bar. The term of office and other qualifications
and disabilities of the Members of the Commission shall provided by law.
(3) Until this Commission is constituted, the existing Presidential Committee on Human Rights shall continue to
exercise its present functions and powers.
(4) The approved annual appropriations of the Commission shall be automatically and regularly released.
Section 18. The Commission on Human Rights shall have the following powers and functions:
(1) Investigate, on its own or on complaint by any party, all forms of human rights violations involving civil and
political rights;
(2) Adopt its operational guidelines and rules of procedure, and cite for contempt for violations thereof in
accordance with the Rules of Court;
(3) Provide appropriate legal measures for the protection of human rights of all persons within the Philippines, as
well as Filipinos residing abroad, and provide for preventive measures and legal aid services to the
underprivileged whose human rights have been violated or need protection;
(4) Exercise visitatorial powers over jails, prisons, or detention facilities;
(5) Establish a continuing program of research, education, and information to enhance respect for the primacy of
human rights;
(6) Recommend to the Congress effective measures to promote human rights and to provide for compensation
to victims of violations of human rights, or their families;
(7) Monitor the Philippine Government’s compliance with international treaty obligations on human rights;
(8) Grant immunity from prosecution to any person whose testimony or whose possession of documents or other
evidence is necessary or convenient to determine the truth in any investigation onducted by it or under its
(9) Request the assistance of any department, bureau, office, or agency in the performance of its functions;
(10) Appoint its officers and employees in accordance with law; and
(11) Perform such other duties and functions as may be provided by law.
Section 19. The Congress may provide for other cases of violations of human rights that should fall within the
authority of the Commission, taking into account its recommendations.

Section 1. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall
take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.
Section 2. The State shall:
(1) Establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the
needs of the people and society;
(2) Establish and maintain, a system of free public education in the elementary and high school levels. Without
limiting the natural rights of parents to rear their children, elementary education is compulsory for all children of
school age;
(3) Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies, and other
incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools, especially to the
(4) Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as self-learning, independent, and
out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs; and
(5) Provide adult citizens, the disabled, and out-of-school youth with training in civics, vocational efficiency, and
other skills.
Section 3. (1) All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of the curricula.
(2) They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster lover of humanity, respect for human rights,
appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and
duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline,
encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational
(3) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, religion shall be allowed to be taught to their
children or wards in public elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated
or approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards belong, without additional
cost to the Government.
Section 4.(1) The State recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institutions in the educational
system and shall exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institutions.
(2) Educational institutions, other than those established by religious groups and mission boards, shall be owned
solely by citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of
which is owned by such citizens. The Congress may, however, require increased Filipino equity participation in
all educational institutions.
The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines.
No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens and no group of aliens shall comprise more
than one-third of the enrollment in any school. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to schools
established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and, unless otherwise provided by law, for
other foreign temporary residents.
(3) All revenues and assets of non-stock, non-profit educational institutions used actually, directly, and
exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from taxes and duties. Upon the dissolution or cessation of
the corporate existence of such institutions, their assets shall be disposed of in the manner provided by law.
Proprietary educational institutions, including those cooperatively owned, may likewise be entitled to such
exemptions subject to the limitations provided by law including restrictions on dividends and provisions for
(4) Subject to conditions prescribed by law, all grants, endowments, donations, or contributions used actually,
directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from tax.
Section 5. (1) the State shall take into account regional and sectoral needs and conditions and shall encourage
local planning in the development of educational policies and programs.
(2) Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning.
(3) Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study, subject to fair, reasonable, and equitable
admission and academic requirements.
(4) The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement. Non-teaching academic and non-
academic personnel shall enjoy the protection of the State.
(5) The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and
retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job
satisfaction and fulfillment.
Section 6. The national language of the Philippines is Filipino. As it evolves, it shall be further developed and
enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages.
Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps to