initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in
the educational system. Section 7. For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the
Philippines are Filipino and, until otherwise provided by law, English.
The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of
instruction therein.
Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.
Section 8. This Constitution shall be promulgated in Filipino and English and shall be translated into major
regional languages, Arabic, and Spanish.
Section 9. The Congress shall establish a national language commission composed of representatives of
various regions and disciplines which shall undertake, coordinate, and promote researches for the development,
propagation, and preservation of Filipino and other languages.
Science and Technology
Section 10. Science and technology are essential for national development and progress. The State shall give
priority to research and development, invention, innovation, and their utilization; and to science and technology
education, training, and services. It shall support indigenous, appropriate, and self- reliant scientific and
technological capabilities, and their application to the country’s productive systems and national life.
Section 11. The Congress may provide for incentives, including tax deductions, to encourage private
participation in programs of basic and applied scientific research. Scholarships, grants-in-aid, or other forms of
incentives shall be provided to deserving science students, researchers, scientists, inventors, technologists, and
specially gifted citizens.
Section 12. The State shall regulate the transfer and promote the adaptation of technology from all sources for
the national benefit. It shall encourage the widest participation of private groups, local governments, and
community-based organizations in the generation and utilization of science and technology.
Section 13. The State shall protect and secure the exclusive rights of scientists, inventors, artists, and other
gifted citizens to their intellectual property and creations, particularly when beneficial to the people, for such
period as may be provided by law.
Arts and Culture
Section 14. The State shall foster the preservation, enrichment, and dynamic evolution of a Filipino national
culture based on the principle of unity in diversity in a climate of free artistic and intellectual expression.
Section 15. Arts and letters shall enjoy the partronage of the State. The State shall conserve, promote, and
popularize the nation’s historical and cultural heritage and resources, as well as artistic creations.
Section 16. All the country’s artistic and historic wealth constitutes the cultural treasure of the nation and shall
be under the protection of the State which may regulate its disposition.
Section 17. The State shall recognize, respect, and protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to
preserve and develop their cultures, traditions, and institutions. It shall consider these rights in the formulation of
national plans and policies.
Section 18. (1) The State shall ensure equal access to cultural opportunities through the educational system,
public or private cultural entities, scholarships, grants and other incentives, and community cultural centers, and
other public venues.
(2) The State shall encourage and support researches and studies on the arts and culture.
Section 19. (1) The State shall promote physical education and encourage sports programs, league
competitions, and amateur sports, including training for international competitions, to foster self-discipline,
teamwork, and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry.
(2) All educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with
athletic clubs and other sectors.

Section 1. The State recognizes the Filipino family as the foundation of the nation. Accordingly, it shall
strengthen its solidarity and actively promote its total development.
Section 2. Marriage, as an inviolable social institution, is the foundation of the family and shall be protected by
the State.
Section 3. The State shall defend:
(1) The right of spouses to found a family in accordance with their religious convictions and the demands of
responsible parenthood;
(2) The right of children to assistance, including proper care and nutrition, and special protection from all forms of
neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation and other conditions prejudicial to their development;
(3) The right of the family to a family living wage and income; and
(4) The right of families or family associations to participate in the planning and implementation of policies and
programs that affect them.
Section 4. The family has the duty to care for its elderly members but the State may also do so through just
programs of social security.
General Provisions
Section 1. The flag of the Philippines shall be red, white, and blue, with a sun and three stars, as consecrated
and honored by the people and recognized by law.
Section 2. The Congress may, by law, adopt a new name for the country, a national anthem, or a national seal,
which shall all be truly reflective and symbolic of the ideals, history, and traditions of the people. Such law shall
take effect only upon its ratification by the people in a national referendum.
Section 3. The State may not be used without its consent.
Section 4. The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall be composed of a citizen armed force which shall undergo
military training and serve, as may be provided by law. It shall keep a regular force necessary for the security of
the State.
Section 5. (1) All members of the armed forces shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend this
(2) The State shall strengthen the patriotic spirit and nationalist consciousness of the military, and respect for
people’s rights in the performance of their duty.
(3) Professionalism in the armed forces and adequate remuneration and benefits of its members shall be a prime
concern of the State. The armed forces shall be insulated from partisan politics.
No member of the military shall engage directly or indirectly in any partisan political activity, except to vote.
(4) No member of the armed forces in the active service shall, at any time, be appointed or designated in any
capacity to a civilian position in the Government including government-owned or controlled corporations or any
of their subsidiaries.
(5) Laws on retirement of military officers shall not allow extension of their service.
(6) The officers and men of the regular force of the armed forces shall be recruited proportionately from all
provinces and cities as far as practicable.
(7) The tour of duty of the Chief of Staff of the armed forces shall not exceed three years. However, in times of