Section 15. The incumbent Members of the Civil Service Commission, the Commission on Elections, and the
Commission on Audit shall continue in office for one year after the ratification of this Constitution, unless they are
sooner removed for cause or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office or appointed to a new
term thereunder. In no case shall any Member serve longer than seven years including service before the
ratification of this Constitution.
Section 16. Career civil service employees separated from the service not for cause but as a result of the
reorganization pursuant to Proclamation No. 3 dated March 25, 1986 and the reorganization following the
ratification of this Constitution shall be entitled to appropriate separation pay and to retirement and other benefits
accruing to them under the laws of general application in force at the time of their separation. In lieu thereof, at
the option of the employees, they may be considered for employment in the Government or in any of its
subdivisions, instrumentalities, or agencies, including government-owned or controlled corporations and their
subsidiaries. This provision also applies to career officers whose resignation, tendered in line with the existing
policy, had been accepted.
Section 17. Until the Congress provides otherwise, the President shall receive an annual salary of three
hundred thousand pesos; the Vice-President, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of
Representatives, and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, two hundred forty thousand pesos each; the
Senators, the Members of the House of Representatives, the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, and the
Chairmen of the Constitutional Commissions, two hundred four thousand pesos each; and the Members of the
Constitutional Commissions, one hundred eighty thousand pesos each.
Section 18. At the earliest possible time, the Government shall increase the salary scales of the other officials
and employees of the National Government.
Section 19. All properties, records, equipment, buildings, facilities, and other assets of any office or body
abolished or reorganized under Proclamation No. 3 dated March 25, 1986 or this Constitution shall be
transferred to the office or body to which its powers, functions, and responsibilities substantially pertain.
Section 20. The first congress shall give priority to the determination of the period for the full implementation of
free public secondary education.
Section 21. The Congress shall provide efficacious procedures and adequate remedies for the reversion to the
State of all lands of the public domain and real rights connected therewith which were acquired in violation of the
Constitution or the public land laws, or through corrupt practices. No transfer or disposition of such lands or real
rights shall be allowed until after the lapse of one year from the ratification of this Constitution.
Section 22. At the earliest possible time, the Government shall expropriate idle or abandoned agricultural lands
as may be defined by law, for distribution to the beneficiaries of the agrarian reform program.
Section 23. Advertising entities affected by paragraph (2), Section 11 of Article XV1 of this Constitution shall
have five years from its ratification to comply on a graduated and proportionate basis with the minimum Filipino
ownership requirement therein.
Section 24. Private armies and other armed groups not recognized by duly constituted authority shall be
dismantled. All paramilitary forces including Civilian Home Defense Forces not consistent with the citizen armed
force established in this Constitution, shall be dissolved or, where appropriate, converted into the regular force.
Section 25. After the expiration in 1991 of the Agreement between the Republic of the Philippines and the
United States of America concerning Military Bases, foreign military bases, troops, or facilities shall not be
allowed in the Philippines except under a treaty duly concurred in by the Senate and, when the Congress so
requires, ratified by a majority of the votes cast by the people in a national referendum held for that purpose, and
recognized as a treaty by the other contracting State.
Section 26. The authority to issue sequestration or freeze orders under Proclamation No. 3 dated March 25,
1986 in relation to the recovery of ill-gotten wealth shall remain operative for not more than eighteen months
after the ratification of this Constitution. However, in the national interest, as certified by the President, the
Congress may extend period.
A sequestration or freeze order shall be issued only upon showing of a prima facie case. The order and the list
of the sequestered or frozen properties shall forthwith be registered with the proper court. For orders issued
before the ratification of this Constitution, the corresponding judicial action or proceeding shall be filed within six
months from its ratification. For those issued after such ratification, the judicial action or proceeding shall be
commenced within six months from the issuance thereof.
The sequestration or freeze order is deemed automatically lifted if no judicial action or proceeding is commenced
as herein provided.
Section 27. This Constitution shall take effect immediately upon its ratification by a majority of the votes cast in a
plebiscite held for the purpose and shall supersede all previous Constitutions.
The foregoing proposed Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines was approved by the Constitutional
Commission of 1986 on the twelfth day of October Nineteen hundred and eighty-six, and accordingly signed on
the fifteenth day of October Nineteen hundred and eighty-six at the Plenary Hall, National Government Center,
Quezon City, by the Commissioners whose signatures are hereunder affixed.
Adopted, Cecilia Munoz Palma, President
Ambrosio B. Padilla, Vice-President
Napoleon G. Rama, Floor Leader
Ahmad Domocao Alonto, Assistant Floor Leader
Jose D. Calderon, Assistant Floor Leader
Yusuf R. Abubakar
Teodulo C. Natividad
Felicitas S. Aquino
Ma. Teresa F. Nieva
Adolfo S. Azcuna
Jose N. Nolledo
Teodoro C. Bacani
Blas F. Ople
Jose F. S. Bengzon, Jr.
Minda Luz M. Quesada
Ponciano L. Bennagen
Florenz D. Regalado
Joaquin G. Bernas
Rustico F. de los Reyes, Jr.
Florangel Rosario Braid
Cirilo A. Rigos
Crispino M. de Castro
Francisco A. Rodrigo
Jose C. Colayco
Ricardo J. Romulo
Roberto R. Concepcion
Decoroso R. Rosales
Hilario G. Davide, Jr.
Rene V. Sarmiento
Vicente B. Foz
Jose E. Suarez
Edmundo G. Garcia
Lorenzo M. Sumulong
Jose Luis Martin C. Gascon
Jaime S. L. Tadeo
Serafin V.C. Guingona
Christine O. Tan
Alberto M. K. Jamir
Gregorio J. Tingson
Jose B. Laurel, Jr.
Efrain B. Trenas
Eulogio R. Lerum
Lugum L. Uka
Regalado E. Maambong
Wilfrido V. Villacorta
Christian S. Monsod
Bernardo M. Villegas
Attested by :
Flerida Ruth P. Romero Secretary-General