including receipts from existing and proposed revenue measures.
Section 23. The President shall address the Congress at the opening of its regular session. He may also appear
before it at any other time.

Judicial Department
Section 1. The judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be
established by law.
Judicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are
legally demandable and enforceable, and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of
discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the
Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to define, prescribe, and apportion the jurisdiction of the various
courts but may not deprive the Supreme Court of its jurisdiction over cases enumerated in Section 5 hereof.
No law shall be passed reorganizing the Judiciary when it under-mines the security of tenure of its Members.
Section 3. The Judiciary shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Appropriations for the Judiciary may not be reduced by the
legislature below the amount appropriated for the previous year and, after approval, shall be automatically and
regularly released.
Section 4. (1) The Supreme Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice and fourteen Associate Justices. It may
sit en banc or in its discretion, in division of three, five, or seven Members. Any vacancy shall be filled within
ninety days from the occurrence thereof.
(2) All cases involving the constitutionality of a treaty, international or executive agreement, or law, which shall
be heard by the Supreme Court en banc, and all other cases which under the Rules of Court are required to be
heard en banc, including those involving the constitutionality, application, or operation of presidential decrees,
proclamations, orders, instructions, ordinances, and other regulations, shall be decided with the concurrence of
a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted
(3) Cases or matters heard by a division shall be decided or resolved with the concurrence of a majority of the
Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon, and in no case,
without the concurrence of at least three of such Members. When the required number is not obtained, the case
shall be decided en banc: Provided, that no doctrine or principle of law laid down by the court in a decision
rendered en banc or in division may be modified or reversed except by the court sitting en banc.
Section 5. The Supreme Court shall have the following powers:
1. Exercise original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and
over petitions for certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto, and habeas corpus.
2. Review, revise, reverse, modify, or affirm on appeal or certiorari as the law or the Rules of Court may
provide, final judgments and orders of lower courts in:
3. All cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty, international or executive agreement, law,
presidential decree, proclamation, order, instruction, ordinance, or regulation is in question.
1. All cases involving the legality of any tax, impost, assessment, or toll, or any penalty imposed in
relation thereto.
2. All cases in which the jurisdiction of any lower court is in issue.
3. All criminal cases in which the penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua or higher.
4. All cases in which only an error or question of law is involved.
4. Assign temporarily judges of lower courts to other stations as public interest may require. Such
temporary assignment shall not exceed six months without the consent of the judge concerned.
5. Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid a miscarriage of justice.
6. Promulgate rules concerning the protection and enforcement of constitutional rights, pleading, practice,
and procedure in all courts, the admission to the practice of law, the Integrated Bar, and legal assistance
to the underprivileged. Such rules shall provide a simplified and inexpensive procedure for the speedy
disposition of cases, shall be uniform for all courts of the same grade, and shall not diminish, increase,
modify substantive rights. Rules of procedure of special courts and quasi-judicial bodies shall remain
effective unless disapproved by the Supreme Court.
7. Appoint all officials and employees of the Judiciary in accordance with the Civil Service Law.
Section 6. The Supreme Court shall have administrative supervision over all courts and the personnel thereof.
Section 7. (1) No person shall be appointed Member of the Supreme Court or any lower collegiate court unless
he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines. A Member of the Supreme Court must be at least forty years of
age, and must have been for fifteen years or more a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in
the Philippines.
(2) The Congress shall prescribe the qualifications of judges of lower courts, but no person may be appointed
judge thereof unless he is a citizen of the Philippines and a member of the Philippine Bar.
(3) A Member of the Judiciary must be a person of proven competence, integrity, probity, and independence.
Section 8. (1) A Judicial and Bar Council is hereby created under the supervision of the Supreme Court
composed of the Chief Justice as ex officio Chairman, the Secretary of Justice, and a representative of the
Congress as ex officio Members, a representative of the Integrated Bar, a professor of law, a retired Member of
the Supreme Court, and a representative of the private sector.
(2) The regular members of the Council shall be appointed by the President for a term of four years with the
consent of the Commission on Appointments. Of the Members first appointed, the representative of the
Integrated Bar shall serve for four years, the professor of law for three years, the retired Justice for two years,
and the representative of the private sector for one year.
(3) The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be the Secretary ex officio of the Council and shall keep a record of its
(4) The regular Members of the Council shall receive such emoluments as may be determined by the Supreme
Court. The Supreme Court shall provide in its annual budget the appropriations for the Council.
(5) The Council shall have the principal function of recommending appointees to the Judiciary. It may exercise
such other functions and duties as the Supreme Court may assign to it.
Section 9. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of lower courts shall be appointed by the President
from a list of at least three nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council for every vacancy. Such
appointments need no confirmation.
For the lower courts, the President shall issue the appointments within ninety days from the submission of the
Section 10. The salary of the Chief Justice and of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, and of judges of
lower courts shall be fixed by law. During their continuance in office, their salary shall not be decreased.
Section 11. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of lower courts shall hold office during good
behavior until they reach the age of seventy years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their
office. The Supreme Court en banc shall have the power of discipline judges of lower courts, or order their
dismissal by a vote of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the
case and voted thereon.
Section 12. The Members of the Supreme Court and of other courts established by law shall not be designated
to any agency performing quasi-judicial or administrative functions.
Section 13. The conclusions of the Supreme Court in any case submitted to it for decision en banc or in division
shall be reached in consultation before the case is assigned to a Member for the writing of the opinion of the
Court. A certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice shall be issued and a copy thereof attached to the
record of the case and served upon the parties. Any Members who took no part, or dissented, or abstained from
a decision or resolution must state the reason therefor. The same requirements shall be observed by all lower
collegiate courts.
Section 14. No decision shall be rendered by any court without expressing therein clearly and distinctly the facts
and the law on which it is based. No petition for review or motion for reconsideration of a decision of the court
shall be refused due course or denied without stating the legal basis therefor.
Section 15. (1) All cases or matters filed after the effectivity of this Constitution must be decided or resolved