within twenty-four months from date of submission for the Supreme Court, and, unless reduced by the Supreme
Court, twelve months for all lower collegiate courts, and three months for all other lower courts.
(2) A case or matter shall be deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading,
brief, or memorandum required by the Rules of Court or by the court itself.
(3) Upon the expiration of the corresponding period, a certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice or the
presiding judge shall forthwith be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case or matter, and
served upon the parties. The certification shall state why a decision or resolution has not been rendered or
issued within said period.
(4) Despite the expiration of the applicable mandatory period, the court, without prejudice to such responsibility
as may have been incurred in consequence thereof, shall decide or resolve the case or matter submitted thereto
for determination, without further delay.
Section 16. The Supreme Court shall, within thirty days from the opening of each regular session of the
Congress, submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on the operations and activities of the
Judiciary.

ARTICLE IX
CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSIONS
A. Common Provisions
Section 1. The Constitutional Commissions, which shall be independent, are the Civil Service Commission, the
Commission on Elections, and the Commission on Audit.
Section 2. No member of a Constitutional Commission shall, during his tenure, hold any other office or
employment. Neither shall he engage in the practice of any profession or in the active management or control of
any business which in any way may be affected by the functions of his office, nor shall he be financially
interested, directly or indirectly, in any contract with, or in any franchise or privilege granted by the Government,
any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations or
their subsidiaries.
Section. 3. The salary of the Chairman and the Commissioners shall be fixed by law and shall not be decreased
during their tenure.
Section 4. The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials and employees in accordance with law.
Section 5. The Commission shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Their approved annual appropriations shall be
automatically and regularly released.
Section 6. Each Commission en banc may promulgate its own rules concerning pleadings and practice before it
or before any of its offices. Such rules however shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights.
Section 7. Each Commission shall decide by a majority vote of all its Members any case or matter brought
before it within sixty days from the date of its submission for decision or resolution. A case or matter is deemed
submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading, brief, or memorandum required by the
rules of the Commission or by the Commission itself. Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or by law,
any decision, order, or ruling of each Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the
aggrieved party within thirty days from receipt of a copy thereof.
Section 8. Each Commission shall perform such other functions as may be provided by law.

B. The Civil Service Commission
Section 1. (1) The civil service shall be administered by the Civil Service Commission composed of a Chairman
and two Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their
appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, with proven capacity for public administration, and must not have
been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment.
(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the
Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the
Chairman shall hold office for seven years, a Commissioner for five years, and another Commissioner for three
years, without appointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor.
In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity.
Section 2. (1) The civil service embraces all branches, subdivisions, instrumentalities, and agencies of the
Government, including government owned or controlled corporations with original charters.
(2) Appoints in the civil service shall be made only according to merit and fitness to be determined, as far as
practicable, and, except to positions which are policy- determining, primarily confidential, or highly technical, by
competitive examination.
(3) No officer or employee of the civil service shall be removed or suspended except for cause provided by law.
(4) No officer or employee in the civil service shall engage, directly or indirectly, in any electioneering or partisan
political campaign.
(5) The right to self-organization shall not be denied to government employees.
(6) Temporary employees of the Government shall be given such protection as may be provided by law.
Section 3. The Civil Service Commission, as the central personnel agency of the Government, shall establish a
career service and adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency, integrity, responsiveness, progressiveness,
and courtesy in the civil service. It shall strengthen the merit and rewards system, integrate all human resources
development programs for all levels and ranks, and institutionalize a management climate conducive to public
accountability. It shall submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on its personnel programs.
Section 4. All public officers and employees shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend this
Constitution.
Section 5. The Congress shall provide for the standardization of compensation of government officials and
employees, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, taking into
account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to, and the qualifications required for their positions.
Section 6. No candidate who has lost in any election shall, within one year after such election, be appointed to
any office in the Government or any government-owned or controlled corporations or in any of their subsidiaries.
Section 7. No elective official shall be eligible for appointment or designation in any capacity to any public office
or position during his tenure.
Unless otherwise allowed by law or by the primary functions of his position, no appointive official shall hold any
other office or employment in the Government or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including
government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries.
Section 8. No elective or appointive public officer or employee shall receive additional, double, or indirect
compensation, unless specifically authorized by law, nor accept without the consent of the Congress, any
present, emolument, office, or title of any kind from any foreign government.
Pensions or gratuities shall not be considered as additional, double, or indirect compensation.

C. The Commission on Elections
Section 1. (1) There shall be a Commission on Elections composed of Chairman and six Commissioners who
shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of
age, holders of a college degree, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the immediately
preceding elections. However, a majority thereof, including the Chairman, shall be members of the Philippine Bar
who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years.
(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the
Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, three