Members shall hold office for seven years, two Members for five years, and the last Members for three years,
without reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor. In
no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity.
Section 2. The Commission on Elections shall exercise the following powers and functions:
(1) Enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election, plebiscite, initiative,
referendum, and recall. (2) Exercise exclusive original jurisdiction over all contests relating to the elections,
returns, and qualifications of all elective regional, provincial, and city officials, and appellate jurisdiction over all
contests involving elective municipal officials decided by trial courts of general jurisdiction, or involving elective
barangay officials decided by trial courts of limited jurisdiction.
Decisions, final orders, or rulings of the Commission on election contests involving elective municipal and
barangay offices shall be final, executory, and not appealable.
(3) Decide, except those involving the right to vote, all questions affecting elections, including determination of
the number and location of polling places, appointment of election officials and inspectors, and registration of
(4) Deputize, with the concurrence of the President, law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the
Government, including the Armed Forces of the Philippines, for the exclusive purpose of ensuring free, orderly,
honest, peaceful, and credible elections.
(5) Register, after sufficient publication, political parties, organizations, or coalitions which, in addition to other
requirements, must present their platform or program of government; and accredit citizens’ arms of the
Commission on Elections. Religious denominations and sects shall not be registered. Those which seek to
achieve their goals through violence or unlawful means, or refuse to uphold and adhere to this Constitution, or
which are supported by any foreign government shall likewise be refused registration.
Financial contributions from foreign governments and their agencies to political parties, organizations, coalitions,
or candidates related to elections constitute interference in national affairs, and, when accepted, shall be an
additional ground for the cancellation of their registration with the Commission, in addition to other penalties that
may be prescribed by law.
(6) File, upon a verified complaint, or on its own initiative, petitions in court for inclusion or exclusion of voters;
investigate and, where appropriate, prosecute cases of violations of election laws, including acts or omissions
constituting election frauds, offenses, and malpractices.
(7) Recommend to the Congress effective measures to minimize election spending, including limitation of places
where propaganda materials shall be posted, and to prevent and penalize all forms of election frauds, offenses,
malpractices, and nuisance candidacies.
(8) Recommend to the President the removal of any officer or employee it has deputized, or the imposition of
any other disciplinary action, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to its directive, order, or decision.
(9) Submit to the President and the Congress a comprehensive report on the conduct of each election,
plebiscite, initiative, referendum, or recall.
Section 3. The Commission on Elections may sit en banc or in two divisions, and shall promulgate its rules of
procedure in order to expedite disposition of election cases, including pre- proclamation controversies. All such
election cases shall be heard and decided in division, provided that motions for reconsideration of decisions
shall be decided by the Commission en banc.
Section 4. The Commission may, during the election period, supervise or regulate the enjoyment or utilization of
all franchises or permits for the operation of transportation and other public utilities, media of communication or
information, all grants, special privileges, or concessions granted by the Government or any subdivision, agency,
or instrumentality thereof, including any government-owned or controlled corporation or its subsidiary. Such
supervision or regulation shall aim to ensure equal opportunity, equal rates therefor, for public information
campaigns and forums among candidates in connection with the objective of holding free, orderly, honest,
peaceful, and credible elections.
Section 5. No pardon, amnesty, parole, or suspension of sentence for violation of election laws, rules, and
regulations shall be granted by the President without the favorable recommendation of the Commission.
Section 6. A free and open party system shall be allowed to evolve according to the free choice of the people,
subject to the provisions of this Article.
Section 7. No votes cast in favor of a political party, organization, or coalition shall be valid, except for those
registered under the party-list system as provided in this Constitution.
Section 8. Political parties, or organizations or coalitions registered under the party-list system, shall not be
represented in the voters’ registration boards, boards of election inspectors, boards of canvassers, or other
similar bodies. However, they shall be entitled to appoint poll watchers in accordance with law.
Section 9. Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases, the election period shall commence
ninety days before the day of election and shall end thirty days thereafter.
Section 10. Bona fide candidates for any public office shall be free from any form of harassment and
Section 11. Funds certified by the Commission as necessary to defray the expenses for holding regular and
special elections, plebiscites, initiatives, referenda, and recalls, shall be provided in the regular or special
appropriations and, once approved, shall be released automatically upon certification by the Chairman of the

D. The Commission on Audit
Section 1. (1) There shall be a Commission on Audit it composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners, who
shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of
age, certified public accountants with not less than ten years of auditing experience, or members of the
Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years, and must not have been
candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. At no time shall all
Members of the Commission belong to the same profession.
(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the
Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the
Chairman shall hold office for seven years, one Commissioner for five years, and the other Commissioner for
three years, without reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the
term of the predecessor. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting
Section 2. (1) The Commission on Audit shall have the power, authority, and duty to examine, audit, and settle
all accounts pertaining to the revenue and receipts of, and expenditures or uses of funds and property, owned or
held in trust by, or pertaining to, the Government, or any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities,
including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, and on a post- audit basis: (a)
constitutional bodies, commissions and offices that have been granted fiscal autonomy under this Constitution;
(b) autonomous state colleges and universities; (c) other government-owned or controlled corporations and their
subsidaries; and (d) such non-governmental entities receiving subsidy or equity, directly or indirectly, from or
through the Government, which are required by law or the granting institution to submit to such audit as a
condition of subsidy or equity. However, where the internal control system of the audited agencies is inadequate,
the Commission may adopt such measures,including temporary or special pre-audit, as are necessary and
appropriate to correct the deficiencies. It shall keep the general accounts of the Government and, for such period
as may be provided by law, preserve the vouchers and other supporting papers pertaining thereto.
(2) The Commission shall have exclusive authority, subject to the limitations in this Article, to define the scope of
its audit and examination, establish the techniques and methods required therefor, and promulgate accounting
and auditing rules and regulations, including those for the prevention and disallowance of irregular, unnecessary,
excessive, extravagant, or unconscionable expenditures, or uses of government funds and properties.
Section 3. No law shall be passed exempting any entity of the Government or its subsidiary in any guise
whatever, or any investment of public funds, from the jurisdiction of the Commission on Audit.
Section 4. The Commission shall submit to the President and the Congress, within the time fixed by law,an
annual report covering the financial condition and operation of the Government, its subdivisions, agencies, and
instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations, and non-governmental entities subject
to its audit, and recommend measures necessary to improve their effectiveness and efficiency. It shall submit
such other reports as may be required by law.