20. Their cultural experience guarantees the values and practice of democratic processes in the political and judicial affairs of the community.


21. This experience also encourages social and community solidarity and pursues economic equity.

22. SFX: Ladies Talking

23. The indigenous-socio-political structure allowed them to enjoy peaceful and free trade relations.

24. social justice, active participation in public decision making

25. and equal distribution of economic resources.

26. When Spanish and American colonizers came, they were amazed to find these mountain people with a strong tradition of self-government.

27. Mobilizing the peace pact institution against external threat to the existing social order, the Cordillera tribes subdued instead the Spaniards.

28. Recognizing the difficulty of bringing these mountain tribes completely within the ambit of colonial rule,

29. the American disguised themselves as benevolent missionaries and teachers.

30. Swiftly, the American colonizers wittingly established the legal foundation to disposes the Cordillera tribes of their lands.

31. The Public land Act of 1905 during the American colonial rule practically stripped the Cordillera cultural communities of all rights of ownership and occupation over their ancestral lands.

32. The Act provided that all lands without formal Torrens titles which was the case of the Cordillera lands, were declared as public land.

33. Subsequently, the first Mining Act In 1905 declared all public lands to be free and open for exploration, occupation and purchase by the citizens of the United States.

34. Another Mining Act known as the Commonwealth Act No. 137 of 1935.