35. provided for the limitation and punishment for cultural communities who engaged in native mining or gold panning.


36. Moreover, Executive Order No. 217 signed by American Governor Henry Stimpson In February 1929 declared national minority lands as forest reserves, parks and reservations.

37. All these oppressive laws enabled the Americans to establish capitalist enterprises In the Cordillera. The mining industry which the Spaniards failed to secure was successfully placed under the control of the Americans.

38. This colonial situation planted the seed of political consciousness In the Cordillera’s historical experience of autonomy.

39. The first manifestations of such experience Is defense of all their rights to ancestral domain and self-governance.

40. Ancestral domain does not Include only the land where you build your house but also the rice lands,

41 pasturelands,

42. hunting grounds,

43. forests,

44. watersheds and rivers,

45. burial grounds.

46. mineral resources and

47. the skies that bring rains and spiritual world of the spirits that circumscribe the physical geography of the Cordillera cosmos.

48. The deprivation of rights to ancestral domain will mean the disintegration of the indigenous culture and traditions of the Cordillera people for self-governance.

49. Political consciousness for self-determination was more defined with intellectual fervor at the end of the American rule.

50. The 1950s-1960s was a period of assertion of identity spearheaded by Cordillera youths and professionals. The task was the reconstruction of the Cordillera region through the forging of solidarity among the Cordillera people.

51. The political struggle for self-determination matured during the authoritarian regime of Ferdinand Marcos from 1972 to 1985. It was a painstaking but sustained battle against “divide and rule” policies.

52. The policy of “ethnic minoritization” attributed the cultural communities as “second class citizens.”